Nanjing is an industrial technology research and development hub, hosting many R&D centers and institutions, especially in areas of electronics technology, information technology, computer software, biotechnology and pharmaceutical technology and new material technology. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea. [134] The museum is notable for enormous collections of Ming and Qing imperial porcelain, which is among the largest in the world. [127] The port area is 98 km (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000. In Nanjing dialect there is no difference between Nanjing and Nanjin or between Nanking and Nankin. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu prince Dodo approached Jiangnan the next spring. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. It was a decade of extraordinary growth with an enormous amount of construction. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai particularly. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. [16][17][18][19] Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421);[20] and the Republic of China under the nationalist Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War. The sparse population led to land as royal rewards were granted for rules’ people. In the spring, the radish tastes very juicy and sweet. As of 2010[update], it operated six public ports and three industrial ports. 2004 - Longtan Containers Port Area opens. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas. As the capital of the brief-lived rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the mid-19th century, Nanjing was known as Tianjing (天京; '"Heavenly Capital" or "Capital of Heaven"'). [126] Nanjing has another airport – Nanjing Ma'an International Airport which temporarily serves as a dual-use military and civil airport. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.[109]. It also employs many different style of cooking methods, such as slow cooking, Chinese oven cooking, etc. Nanjing (listen), alternatively romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with 11 districts, Nanjing has an administrative area of 6,600 km (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 8,505,500 as of 2019 . From the 1960s to 1980s there were five pillar industries, namely, electronics, automobiles, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. [citation needed] The area was successively part of Kuaiji, Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty (106 BC). With Hugo Armstrong, Rosalind Chao, Stephen Dorff, John Getz. The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) History of Nanking Massacre. It must made more public despite Japan's attempt to cover up the facts of what truly occurred. [69] It had been visited by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the southern provinces. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. [14] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. All this happened in a matter of just eight weeks. • Hongwu Jingcheng Tuzhi [Illustrated Gazetteer of the Capital in the Hongwu Era]. [61][62] The Manchus soon ordered all male residents of the city to shave their heads in the Manchu queue way. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average (4.3 percent). In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. Thus, one can see the statues of the famous teachers and educators of the past not too far from those of the courtesans who educated the young men in the other arts. Southeast University is also among the most famous universities in China and is considered to be one of the best universities for Architecture and Engineering in China. New York: Putnam, 1967. p. 109, Fu Jing-hui, An Introduction of Chinese and Foreign History of War, 2003, p.109–111, Document sent by former Japanese foreign minister. As from October 2014, Nanjing had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze River, linking districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank.[110]. Nanking was founded during the reign of the Terran Alliance, and like many colony worlds found itself independent after the issue of the Demarcation Declaration.Joining with a number of other nearby planets in the 2240s in an act of balkanization common to those rippling across the Inner Sphere in the wake of the withdrawal of Terran oversight … Tunnel, Heyan Rd. Koxinga's forces were unable to maintain a complete encirclement, which enabled the city to obtain supplies and even reinforcements—though cavalry attacks by the city's forces were successful even before reinforcements arrived. Nanjing, Wade-Giles romanization Nan-ching, conventional Nanking, city, capital of Jiangsu sheng (province), east-central China.It is a port on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and a major industrial and communications centre. A railway Ninggao Intercity Line has been built to link the airport with Nanjing South Railway Station. The local cuisine in Nanjing is called Jinling cuisine (金陵菜) or Jingsu cuisine (京苏菜); it is part of Jiangsu province's cuisine. The city, also spelled Nanjing or Nan-ching, was founded in the 8 th century BC. [141] Jiangsu Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. Vaughan, C. Edwin. [90] The heavy smog heavily polluted central and southern Jiangsu Province, especially in and around Nanjing,[91] with its AQI pollution Index at "severely polluted" for five straight days and "heavily polluted" for nine. Planetary History [] Early History []. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing. [27] It was renamed Moling (秣陵) during the reign of the First Emperor of Qin. The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, the city has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. Zheng He governed the city with three eunuchs for internal matters and two military noblemen for external matters, awaiting the Hongxi Emperor's return along with the military establishment from the north. [130] CSC Jinling has a large shipyard.[131]. In ancient times the area was known as, A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral, 100 National Key Universities are universities of. The city normally held about 250,000 people, but by the mid-1930s its population had swollen to more than 1 million. History textbooks were reworded to describe the Sino-Japanese War as "advancing in and out of China" instead of "aggression" which was deemed to be a more pejorative term. 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